Contrary to widespread belief, the woman does not change its name upon marriage. It retains its name, as it is focused on his birth certificate (his "maiden name"). It is this name which remains the only indicated on civil status (birth certificate, marriage certificate, family book ...).
But the marriage was, in fact, result in giving "the use" spouse's name to each spouse, possibly by joining the two names (double name). It is, however, a possibility of a right and not an obligation.
The name of use can thus be mentioned on official documents such as identity cards or driving licenses, or administrative correspondence.
For identity documents, indicate the name of the spouse in section "second name" when filling out the application form. In other jurisdictions, it is possible to inform at once several organizations (CAF, health insurance ...) via an online service.
This right can be exercised when the husband wants. There is no deadline to meet.
In case of divorce, each spouse loses the right to use the name of another as Common Name. Except in special cases when the spouse concerned justifies a particular interest, and with the applicant's agreement.
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